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Major Premise:   

A Roman Pontiff must die before a lawful election of a new Roman Pontiff can be held.

Minor Premise:   

The previous Roman Pontiff, Benedict XVI, was not dead prior to the papal election held in March 2013.


The election of the Roman Pontiff in March 2013 was not a lawful election.



The Apostolic Constitution Universi Dominici Gregis requires the "death" of the Pope as a necessary pre-condition of a new papal election. This requirement is mentioned in eighteen different locations.[1] UDG additionally requires the necessary pre-condition of the celebration of the "funeral rites" for the same deceased Pope. This requirement is mentioned in five different locations.[2] Finally, UDG requires the necessary pre-condition of the "burial" of the Pope. This requirement is mentioned in six different locations.[3]

UDG Part One, Chapter V is entitled "The Funeral Rites of the Roman Pontiff," and No. 27 in that chapter says, "After the death of the Roman Pontiff, the Cardinals will celebrate the funeral rites for the repose of his soul for nine consecutive days...." And UDG Part Two, Chapter III, is entitled "The Beginning of the Election," and No. 49 in that chapter says, 

49. When the funeral rites for the deceased Pope have been celebrated according to the prescribed ritual, and everything necessary for the regular functioning of the election has been prepared, on the day appointed in accordance with the provisions of No. 37 of the present Constitution for the opening of the Conclave, the Cardinal electors shall meet in the Basilica of Saint Peter's in the Vatican, or elsewhere, should circumstances warrant it, in order to take part in a solemn Eucharistic celebration with the Votive Mass Pro Eligendo Papa. This celebration should preferably take place at a suitable hour in the morning, so that in the afternoon the prescriptions of the following Numbers of this Constitution can be carried out.

The above section states clearly that before the "prescriptions" of the following sections (i.e., those prescriptions concerning the election itself) can be carried out, the "funeral rites of the deceased Pope" must be celebrated.

Further down in UDG No. 77, we read that the "dispositions" concerning "everything that precedes the election" and for the “election of the Roman Pontiff” must be followed precisely even if the vacancy of the Apostolic See is the result of "the resignation of the Supreme Pontiff":

77. I decree that the dispositions concerning everything that precedes the election of the Roman Pontiff and the carrying out of the election itself must be observed in full, even if the vacancy of the Apostolic See should occur as a result of the resignation of the Supreme Pontiff, in accordance with the provisions of Canon 332 § 2 of the Code of Canon Law and Canon 44 § 2 of the Code of Canons of the Eastern Churches.

In the above quote, UDG requires that “everything that precedes the election,” which includes the “death” of, the celebration of the “funeral rites” of, and the "burial" of the Pope, must be “observed in full,” before the actual election for the new Pope can take place. And this requirement holds “even if the vacancy of the Apostolic See should occur as a result of the resignation of the Supreme Pontiff.” 

Finally, UDG No. 76 states what will occur if the requirements of UDG are not followed:

76. Should the election take place in a way other than that prescribed in the present Constitution, or should the conditions laid down here not be observed, the election is for this very reason null and void, without any need for a declaration on the matter; consequently, it confers no right on the one elected.

Here UDG unequivocally states that not only is an election that fails to follow the law precisely “null and void,” but also that those recognizing the unlawfulness of the election need not wait for any “declaration” from a higher authority. All one needs to do is apply the law expressed in UDG to the facts preceding and during the election. If there is a contradiction of the law and the facts, the result of the election is to be ignored.

Therefore, since the special law of Universi Dominci Gregis requires that the previous Pope must die before a new papal election can occur, the papal election of March 2013 in which Jorge Mario Bergoglio was elected was and is null and void. Until Pope Benedict XVI dies, no lawful election of a new Roman Pontiff may be held.


Jorge Mario Bergoglio is a pretender to the Roman Pontificate. He is an Antipope.


1. The word "death" referring to the Pope, will be found 18 times, in the following locations: UDG No. 3; UDG No. 13(b); UDG No. 13(e); UDG No. 14; UDG No. 15; UDG No. 17 (4 mentions); UDG No. 19 (2 mentions); UDG No. 25 (2 mentions); UDG No. 27; UDG No. 30 (2 mentions); UDG No. 33; UDG No. 84. Please note, in the Apostolic Letter Normas Nonullas, Benedict XVI removed the mention of the "death of the Pope" from No. 49 of UDG, which eliminated an ambiguity in the text. The new version of UDG No. 49, along with the new version of No. 37 changed in the same document, states unequivocally that ONLY AFTER "the funeral rites for the deceased Pope have been celebrated" can a new papal election proceed. 

2. The word "funeral," referring to the Pope, will be found 5 times, in the following locations: UDG No. 11; UDG No. 13(b); UDG No. 27; UDG No. 49; UDG No. 84

3. The word "burial," referring to the Pope, will be found, 6 times, in the following locations: UDG No. 13(b); UDG No. 17 (2 mentions); UDG No. 28 (2 mentions); UDG No. 31.

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